Cellulite - structural changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, leading to a disturbance of microcirculation and lymphatic drainage. It can be described as stagnant phenomena in adipose tissue, leading to its dystrophy. Medical specialists still use the term "cellulite" not to use, but call this phenomenon " gynoid lipodystrophy". There is no common opinion on the problem in the medical community, many doctors do not consider cellulite a disease. The term cellulite should not be confused with the term cellulitis, which means purulent inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue.
Description and causes
The connective tissue of the hypodermis is the site of the synthesis of fats. The transformation of fats and their introduction into the circulatory system is due to adipocytes (fat cells). For normal skin is characterized by the presence of a large number of adipocytes of small size, grouped in the "fat lobules", surrounded by collagen and reticular tissues. "Fat lobules" are associated with the circulatory system through which lipids enter the bloodstream and feed the body tissues.
Adipocytes transform fats from food-grade sugar into calories and thus satisfy the body's natural needs (metabolism, body energy balance, etc.). Adipocytes produce endorphins, which, when reaching the brain, bring a feeling of complete satisfaction. Over time, there is a dependence: the body needs more leptin, stimulates the formation of new adipocytes and an increase in old ones, which, in turn, need additional nutrition. Consequently, the appetite increases. The activity of adipocytes is stimulated by the secretion of certain hormones.
As a result, adipocytes cease to function properly, working at the saturation center. This immediately leads to the accumulation of fats, the weakening of the capillaries and the appearance of edema. At this stage, normal circulation of blood and lymph (accumulation of intercellular lipids) is disrupted against the background of insufficient nutrition of local tissues. The skin takes on a puffy appearance (for the time being to a small extent) - this is the first symptom of cellulite.
Subsequently, adipocytes begin to cluster into nodes, provoking tissue fibrosis. This is the stage of the appearance of the "orange skin effect". As the nodes increase, as well as the consolidation and solidification of fibrous tissues, the surface of the skin becomes uneven, as if covered with tubercles. This is the stage of neglected cellulite.
The phenomenon of cellulite development is still poorly understood, but in any case, the cause of its appearance is a combination of different factors (hormonal disorders, heredity, malnutrition, ethnic characteristics) [ 1].
Despite the fact that the term is known since the XIX century, cellulite was not considered a pathological phenomenon, but quite normal. A wide campaign against cellulite began only in 1973 with the filing of the owner of the beauty salon Nicole Ronsar, who sought to attract new customers for her salon.
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